Archive for the ‘H1 Receptors’ Category

The powder of WAE (yield: 30

Thursday, June 30th, 2022

The powder of WAE (yield: 30.43%) was kept at 4?C for further experiments. Characterization of the extracts Total polysaccharidesThe contents of total polysaccharides in WIE and WAE were determined using Cobimetinib (racemate) phenolCsulfuric acid method. using spectrophotometric and chromatographic approaches. In addition, the in vivo immunomodulatory effect of WIE, WAE and UFP of Astragalus were comprehensively compared in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressive mice. Results The compositions and contents of main active ingredients (polysaccharides, saponins and flavonoids) in WIE were determined to be more abundant than those in WAE. In Cy-induced immunosuppressive mice, oral administered with low dosage of WIE (equalled to 1 1.0?g herb/kg/day) for Cobimetinib (racemate) 18 consecutive days significantly improved the immune-related responses (body weight, number of peripheral white blood cells, thymus and spleen indexes, splenocyte proliferations, natural killer cell activity, splenic lymphocyte subset, and serum levels of immunoglobulins G and M). The potency of three Astragalus preparations on immunomodulation was observed to be WIE??UFP? ?WAE. Conclusions WIE maximally retained the chemical integrity of astragalus, and offered better restorative performance than UFP and WAE. It can be further developed as fresh strategy for reasonable use of medicinal/edible herb-derived product (draw out) for pharmaceutical and healthcare applications. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13020-019-0234-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (Fisch.) Bge. var. (Bge.) Hsiao) and its ultrafine powder (UFP) with D90? ?45?m were both purchased from Guangjitang CSPC Pharm Group (Guizhou, China). The plant sample was authenticated from the related author and the voucher specimen (HQ-2017001) was deposited in Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University or college of Macau. For Cobimetinib (racemate) WIE, the air-dried and powdered Astragalus (400?g) was gradient extracted with 95% ethanol (4?L), 50% ethanol (4?L) and water (4?L) at 60?C for 1?h for each. The filtered components were combined and concentrated under rotate reduced pressure to remove ethanol. The concentrated draw out was then lyophilized having a Virtis Freeze Dryer (The Virtis Organization, New York, USA). The powder of WIE (yield: 31.27%) was kept at 4?C for further experiments. For WAE, the air-dried and powdered Astragalus (400?g) was extracted thrice with water (4?L) at 60?C for 1?h for each. The combined draw out was filtered, concentrated and then lyophilized having a Virtis Freeze Dryer. The powder of WAE (yield: 30.43%) was kept at 4?C for further experiments. Rabbit Polyclonal to SFRS17A Characterization of the components Total polysaccharidesThe material of total polysaccharides in WIE and WAE were identified using phenolCsulfuric acid method. Briefly, a 2?mL of glucose remedy (0C50?g/mL) or sample remedy (1?mg/mL) was mixed with 1?mL of 6% phenol remedy, and then incubated at 60?C for another 15?min after addition of 5?mL concentrated sulfuric acid. After chilling, the absorbance was measured at 490?nm. The content of total polysaccharides in WIE and WAE were determined using glucose as standard. Total saponins and Astragaloside IVThe total saponins in WIE and WAE were identified using Vanillin (glacial acetic acid) assay. Briefly, 1?mL of WIE or WAE remedy (1?mg/mL in water) was loaded onto an activated SepPak C18 Cartridges (Waters Corp., Milford, USA) and then washed with 2?mL of water. The adsorbed saponins were eluted with 1?mL methanol into a glass tube. After evaporation, the residue was dissolved in 0.2?mL 5% vanillin in glacial acetic acid solution and 0.8?mL perchloric acid. Subsequently, the combination was incubated at 60?C for 15?min followed by addition of 5?mL glacial acetic acid after cooling. The absorbance was measured at 560?nm. The material of total saponins in WIE and WAE were determined using Astragaloside IV as requirements. The content of Astragaloside IV in WIE and WAE was determined by a Waters Alliance HPLC Cobimetinib (racemate) system coupled with a Waters ACQUITY QDa Mass Detector (Waters Corp., Milford, USA). Samples were eluted on an Agilent Extend C-18 analytical column (150?mm??2.1?mm I.D., 5?m) at 25?C with mobile phases of water-acetonitrile-formic acid (65:35:0.1, v/v/v), at a flow rate of 1 1.0?mL/min. Between.

As a result, we tested the immune response in infected ducklings to verify whether the anti-DHAV-1 effect of BLIN was based on its immuno-regulation ability

Monday, April 25th, 2022

As a result, we tested the immune response in infected ducklings to verify whether the anti-DHAV-1 effect of BLIN was based on its immuno-regulation ability. The T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation abilities of BLIN were tested. 2017). Animals and cells Animals and ethics statement All the animals were purchased from the Tangquan Poultry Farm, Jiangsu province, China. All animal experiments in our work conformed to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication, Eighth edition, 2011) and was approved by the Nanjing Agricultural University Animal Care Committee. Duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs) DEHs were prepared according to the method described previously (Chen et?al. 2014a). First, the tissue was collected, minced and washed three times with D-Hanks. Next, the tissue was digested with a solution of 0.20% trypsin. The tissue was washed three times with D-Hanks after removing the redundant trypsin. The cells were then cultured in GM in a humid atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37?C. When the hepatocytes grew into a monolayer, the GM was removed and the cells were collected Nicodicosapent for standby. B lymphocytes Splenic B lymphocytes were prepared according to the method of Zhao et?al. (2012). A spleen from a non-immunized 30-day-old cherry valley duck Nicodicosapent was gently ground and then diluted with D-Hanks. The diluted spleen sample was carefully and slowly layered on the surface of the lymphocyte separation medium in a centrifuge tube. After 10?min of centrifugation at 1500?for 10?min, the T lymphocytes were collected and washed twice with D-Hanks. Finally, the T lymphocytes were diluted to 2.5??106 cells/mL with RPMI-1640 and collected for standby. Anti-DHAV-1 reproduction effect assay A 24-well cell culture plate containing a DEHs monolayer was treated with 200?L DHAV-1 (100 TCID50) per well, except for CD69 the control wells. In the meantime, 200?L BLIN at 40, 20, 10 and 5?g/mL (the working concentrations were, respectively, 20, 10, 5 and 2.5?g/mL) was added to the BLIN-treated wells. The cell control and virus control wells were made up to 400?L with Nicodicosapent MM. Then, the DHAV-1 was diluted to 50 TCID50 and BLIN was diluted to 20?g/mL (the concentration had no toxicity to DEHs as determined by a pre-experiment cytotoxicity test), 10, 5 and 2.5?g/mL. The plate was incubated at 37?C in a humid atmosphere of 5% CO2 for 24?h. Finally, the qRT-PCR method was applied to measure the DHAV-1 reproduction level. Assay of antiviral process of BLIN during DHAV-1 viral life Adsorption assay The adsorption assay consisted of two sample-adding modes: pre-adding drug and post-adding drug modes (Chen et?al. 2014a). Briefly, in the pre-adding drug mode, the virus control wells and BLIN-treated wells in a 24-well cell culture plate containing a DEHs monolayer were incubated with 400?L MM and 400?L BLIN (20?g/mL), respectively, at 4?C for 4?h. Then, the plate was washed three times with D-Hanks and 400?L DHAV-1 (50 TCID50) was added to all wells. The plates were then incubated at 37?C in a humid atmosphere of 5% CO2 for 1?h. After that, the qRT-PCR method was used to detect virus adsorption. In the post-adding drug mode, all wells of a 24-well cell culture plate containing a DEHs monolayer were incubated with 400?L DHAV-1 (50 TCID50) at 37?C in a humid atmosphere of 5% CO2 for 1?h. Then, the plate was washed three times with D-Hanks and 400?L MM (virus control wells) or 400?L BLIN (BLIN-treated wells) was added. The plates were then incubated at 4?C for 4?h. Similarly, the qRT-PCR method was used to detect virus adsorption. Cell controls were used in these two assays. Replication.

the control group; ## 0

Thursday, December 9th, 2021

the control group; ## 0.01 vs. BUN and serum creatinine (72?h of CDDP). The lost bodyweight, and the increase of kidney index, BUN and creatinine were higher in Nrf2?/? KI mice than those in WT mice (Figures 1BCE). In the group of CDDP, macroscopic kidneys exhibited whitening, which confirmed that Nrf2?/? mice were susceptible to toxin insult (Physique 1F). Consistently, the histological assessment of the kidneys indicated a significantly worse tubular injury in the Nrf2?/? mice than it in the WT mice, including severe dilation of the proximal tubules, cast formation, and Rabbit Polyclonal to Tip60 (phospho-Ser90) massive detachment and necrosis of the tubular epithelium (Figures 1G,H). Open in a separate window Physique 1 Nrf2?/? mice are more susceptible to CDDP-induced AKI. (A) An acute kidney injury model was induced 3?days after i.p. injection of CDDP (10, 20?mg/kg). WT mice and Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice treated with CDDP (10, 20?mg/kg) are shown. (B) Body weight and (C) Kidney/body excess weight ratio. (D,E) BUN and serum creatinine were measured. (F) macroscopic kidney and (G) hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). (H) Tubular injury scores for kidney damage. * 0.05, ** 0.01. Daph Effectively Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced AKI in Wild-Type Mice Our previous studies found that Daph, as the main Nrf2 activator, exert antioxidant activity by regulating the Nrf2/ARE pathway (Lv et al., 2017; Lv et al., 2018). We utilized it to investigate its protective effects on CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. After fasting for 12?h, the mice received a single dose of CDDP alone (20?mg/kg) to induce AKI or in combination with the ip administration of Daph for three times (Physique 2B). As indicated in Figures 2CCI, the administration of Daph significantly reversed the CDDP-induced loss of body weight and the high levels of kidney index, BUN and serum creatinine and tubular necrosis. Open in a separate window Physique 2 Daph protects against CDDP-induced AKI in WT mice. (A) The molecular structure of Daph. (B) Schematic routine for CDDP alone and combined with Daph or NAC treatments = 5 for all those test groups. * 0.05, ** 0.01. Daph Protects Isoprenaline HCl Wild-Type Mice From Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage Induced by Cisplatin As oxidative damage is crucial in CDDP-induced AKI, we investigated whether Daph pretreatment could reduce kidney damage by inhibiting oxidative stress. We Isoprenaline HCl detected SOD, GSH, MPO and MDA levels related to oxidation. As indicated in Figures 3ACD, Daph treatment significantly increased SOD and GSH levels, decreased MPO and MDA levels. Subsequently, we examined changes in the expression levels of Daph on oxidative protein. As offered in Physique 3E, Daph treatment amazingly suppressed the expression levels of NOX4, and increasing the expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT6, Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 compared with the CDDP only group. These data show that the protective effects of Daph on CDDP-induced kidney injury by enhancing SIRT1, SIRT6 and Nrf2 and its regulated antioxidant enzymes. Open in a separate windows Physique 3 Daph inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in WT mice. (ACD) MPO, MDA, SOD and GSH levels in AKI mice. (E) Western blots analysis showing the expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT6, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, cytoplasmic Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1 and NOX4 in the kidneys from WT mice. (F) Western blots analysis showing the expression levels of p-JNK, JNK, p-p38, p38, (p)-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, HMGB1 and NF-B in the kidneys from WT mice. Data are offered as the mean SEM, n = 5 for all those test groups. * 0.05 and ** 0.01 vs. the control group; # 0.05 and ## Isoprenaline HCl 0.01 vs. the CDDP group. As indicated in Physique 3F, CDDP obviously enhancing the expression levels of NF-B and HMGB1 and phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and P38. But, treatment with Daph obviously suppress this phenomenon. In conclusion, increasing evidence demonstrates that this Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway is crucial for the suppression of oxidative stress and.